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[English Forum] 美国麻醉医师之常见问答(原创翻译)

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发表于 2009-11-29 20:15:16 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

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本帖最后由 老骥伏枥 于 2009-11-30 22:03 编辑

Here are some frequently asked questions about anesthesiology that might give you a better idea of just how important this medical profession is in the safety and comfort of patients having surgery and anesthesia.
如下是麻醉的常见问答,它会告诉你对于接受麻醉和外科手术的病人来说,这个有关他们的安全和舒适的医疗职业有多么重要。

1. Q. Describe the typical day of an anesthesiologist.
A. My typical day consists of arriving at the hospital between 6:15 and 6:30 a.m. The first thing I do is check to see where I have been assigned for the day. I may be in an operating room (O.R.) giving an anesthetic, or in our pre-op area interviewing patients and preparing them for surgery, or in obstetrics helping moms have their babies safely and comfortably, or in charge of the O.R. that day. Some of our patients will need special procedures to prepare them for surgery, and I help with that too. If I am on call, I work 24 hours and then have the next day off. Otherwise, my day will end anywhere from 12 noon to 7 p.m.描述一下一个麻醉医师的日常工作。我的日常工作包括在615630之间到达医院。我要做的第一件事是我需要知道我进天被指派到哪里。我可能在手术间里麻醉,或者在访视患者为手术做准备,或者在产科帮助母亲们安全而舒适的生下宝宝,或者负责那一天的手术。有一些患者需要为他们当天的手术做一些特别的准备,我会帮助他们。如果我随时待命,我会工作24h直到第二天。否则,我会在中午12点到晚上7点之间下班。


2. Q. Why do you enjoy your job?
A. I love my job because I find medicine exciting and challenging. I have to use technical skills to perform procedures on patients, I have to use intellectual skills to problem solve, and I have to use personal skills to help patients get through the anxiety of surgery, anesthesia and sometimes the pain afterward.为什么你喜欢你的工作?我热爱我的工作因为我发现医学令人兴奋并且具有挑战性。我需要用技术技能给患者实施麻醉,用智力技能去解决问题,用个人技能去帮助患者摆脱手术与麻醉的焦虑,有时还要解决术后的疼痛问题。
3. Q. If you could change one thing about your job, what would it be?
A. I would like to change the unpredictability of the hours, but it is completely tied to the O.R. schedule. Of course, that schedule reflects both scheduled (elective) surgeries like gall bladder operations and tonsillectomies, as well as emergency surgeries, including childbirth, heart attacks and car accidents.如果你有能力去改变关于你工作中的一件事,那会是什么事? 我想去改变时间的不可预测性,但它完全与手术室的作息表紧密相连。做个作息表包括胆囊手术和扁桃体摘除术,也包括了急诊手术,包括分娩,心跳骤停和交通事故。


4. Q. Describe the work environment.
A. Our work environment is always changing. Some days are routine. However, when you least expect it, things can quickly become very exciting. The O.R. is stimulating, challenging and completely rewarding. I personally work in a close-knit group where we are similar to a supportive family.描述一下你的工作坏境。我们的工作环境总是不断改变的。有些天很有规律。在你最不经意时候,事情可能变得很令人兴奋。手术室是刺激的,具有挑战性的,也是完全值得的。个人认为我工作在一个紧密团结的像一个家庭一样的团体中。


5. Q. What are some complications an anesthesiologist might face during surgery?
A. As noted above, we often see side effects to all of the drugs that we use. These may be a lowering of blood pressure and a change in the pulse. Most anesthetic drugs depress the breathing stimulus, and the anesthesiologist must be prepared to support the patient's breathing. Rarely, the patient may experience significant changes in temperature, allergic reactions to drugs, damage to teeth due to the breathing tubes being placed in the trachea, bleeding problems, bronchospasm in the lungs, aspiration of stomach contents, or injury to nerves when nerve blocks are used. While this list may seem long, these reactions are very uncommon, especially in the healthy patient, but the anesthesiologist must be prepared not only to recognize any problem, but also he or she must know how to manage the problem. 整个手术过程中麻醉医师将会面临哪些并发症?如上所说,我们经常面临我们所使用的药物的副反应。可能会有血压的降低和脉率的改变。大多数的麻醉药抑制呼吸,麻醉医师必须准备为患者提供呼吸支持。很少见的情况下,病人会有体温的重要改变,对药物的过敏反应,气管导管置入导致的牙齿损坏,出血的问题,肺部的支气管痉挛,胃内容物的吸入,实施神经阻滞时的神经损伤。名单看起来很长,实际以上反应不常发生,特别是在健康病人,但是麻醉医师必须不仅仅要认识到这些问题,还需要知道如何解决问题。

6. Q. Do the benefits of anesthesia surpass the risks?
A. The risks of anesthesia are quite minimal. But in each case, the patient must weigh the benefits of the surgery (there is no need to give an anesthetic unless there is a need to do surgery) against the risks of the SURGERY AND THE ANESTHESIA! In some cases, the benefits or the surgery do not justify exposing the patient to the risks of anesthesia, such as when a patient with severe congestive heart failure may also have a painful knee. Although an artificial knee could reduce the pain, the patient in consultation with his or her physicians including the anesthesiologist, needs to weigh the benefits of a new knee with no pain versus the potential of more damage to the heart from the effects of anesthesia. Each case and each patient must be addressed as an individual, unique and different from any other patient. 麻醉的益处大于风险吗?麻醉的风险相当小。但是对于每个个案来说,患者必须衡量手术带来的益处(只有有手术的必要才需要麻醉)与麻醉和手术共同带来的风险。在某些情况下,手术带来的益处不能与麻醉带来的风险对等。比如膝盖疼痛不已的患有严重的先天性心脏缺损的患者。最然人工膝关节能减轻疼痛,病人需要和内科医师包括麻醉医师在内共同衡量麻醉的影响。每个病人都应该得到不同于其他病人的特殊的而个体化的对待。


7. Q. Would today's surgeries be possible without general anesthesia?
A. The simple answer is "NO!" Before anesthesia was first administered by Dr. Crawford W. Long in Jefferson, Georgia in 1842, the surgical treatment of diseases and trauma was extremely rare. On those rare occasions, patients suffering from gangrene of a leg or a serious fracture would be drugged with alcohol or morphine, and then restrained while a fast surgeon would perform the procedure. The accounts of these operations are horrifying. It is amazing how Dr. Long's discovery of ether as an anesthetic and the first public demonstration of an anesthetic by Dr. William T.G. Morton at Harvard in 1846 revolutionized the treatment of life-threatening ailments. The discovery of ether as an anesthetic at that time was unique because it was an American event, whereas most medical discoveries up to that time originated in Europe.如果没有全身麻醉,今天外科手术是可能的吗?1842Dr. Crawford W. Long Jefferson, Georgia第一次提出麻醉的概念之前的最简单的回答是“不可能”,那时候疾病和创伤的外科治疗几乎没有。只有在极偶然的情况下,遭受腿部坏疽和严重骨折的病人会被投以酒精或者吗啡,抑制后,一个外科快刀手会实施手术。手术的收费奇高。令人惊讶的是Dr. Long如何发现乙醚是一种麻醉药并且由Dr. William T.G. Morton1846年在Harvard首先公开证明了这种麻醉药从而改革了那些威胁生命的疾病的处理方法。乙醚作为一种麻醉药的发现在那时是很独特的,因为那是一件美国人的大事。在那时以前大多数的医学发现都起源于欧洲。

8. Q. What qualities should a person possess to be successful in this career?

A. To be successful in anesthesiology, it goes without saying that you must excel academically, but also an anesthesiologist has to be incredibly detailed-oriented, skillful at procedures, calm in stressful situations, and warm and caring to ease patient’s anxiety.在这个职业一个想要成功的人需要什么样的素质?想在麻醉行业成功,并不是说你一定要有过人的理论,而要有难以置信的细节导向,技术熟练,身处压力中保持镇静,富有热心,和关怀之心来减轻每一个患者的焦虑。                           

9. Q. What are some good classes that I can take in both high school and college that will help me on this career path?
A. I would take all the necessary pre-med requirements, but then I would take classes such as art, music and history. As your life progresses, having outside interests and hobbies will make you well rounded and better able to cope with the stress of medicine as a career.在高等学校和学院我应该选什么课程才有益于我在该行业的发展?我愿意学习所有必要的医学之前的课程,但是我也会学习绘画,音乐,和历史。随着你生活的继续,有其他的业余爱好将会使你更好的对抗来自这个医学职业的压力。

10. Q. Do you experience a lot of high pressure situations? If so, how do you deal with them?
A. Yes, we frequently experience high-pressure situations, but in a way, we thrive on the excitement and that is what is so attractive about anesthesiology. I deal with stressful situations by simplifying them to "ABC" = airway, breathing, circulation. And, of course, I am always building on my knowledge, staying up to date on the latest techniques, anesthetic agents, research, monitoring equipment and technology.

  你会经历很多高压局面吗?如果是,你会怎么处理它们?当然。我们总会面临高压的局面。但是从某种角度说,我们在惊心动魄中成长并且这也是麻醉如此吸引我们的原因。我用“ABC”方法来简化它们,分别是气道,呼吸,循环。当然,我会去完善我的知识面,熬夜去寻找最新的麻醉技术,麻醉药物,研究,监护设备以及技术。
11. Q. What are some of the rewarding experiences that you have had?
A. One of the most rewarding experiences is to have someone remember being comforted and placed at ease by your care. Surgery is very scary to most patients. When you least expect positive reinforcement, a note will be in your mailbox from a patient, and you know that you had an impact on their care--and their life.你所得到的回报体验是什么?最大的回报体验是有些人会记得他们在你的照料下得到了安慰和放松。外科手术对大多数病人来说意味着提心吊胆。当你最不想积极进取的时候,你邮箱里来自你患者的一封信会使你知道你对他们的照顾——甚至生活,有重要影响。
12. Q. Why did you choose this career?
A. I chose medicine because I loved science. Even when I was very young, I was completely enamored with doctors--how they cared about other people, especially people who were sick and hurting. Anesthesiology has allowed me to combine my interests and continues to keep me challenged.你为什么选择这个职业?因为喜爱科学所以我选择医学。当我很小的时候,我就对医生着迷,他们怎样关心其他人,特别是那些生了病的和受伤的。麻醉与我的兴趣楔合并且使我感到被挑战。
13. Q. What sacrifices have you had to make, and were they worth it?
A. I have struck a balance between my personal life and my professional life. I love my job, but I also love going to my children's classes at school, talking about being a doctor and what they might expect if they ever have to go to the hospital for surgery. I am a very hands-on parent. I also had worked in an academic setting, teaching others to practice anesthesiology. You don't have to be chair of the department to have a very exciting career and still spend time with family and friends.你为此做出了牺牲吗?你觉得那值得吗?我在我的个人生活和职业生活中找到了平衡。我热爱我的工作。但我也愿意来到学校我的孩子们的班级里,在那里谈论作为一个医生以及如果他们因要做外科手术而来到医院他们希望得到什么。我也是为人父母。如果可能的话,我愿意工作在一个理论性的环境里,教别人麻醉学。在激动人心的职业与把大部分时间花在家人和朋友身上二者之间,鱼与熊掌不可兼得。
14. Q. What other information and advice can you give to someone interested in this occupation?
A. If you are interested in medicine, find a mentor and visit a doctor for the day. GOOD LUCK!你还要给与对此行业感兴趣的人们其它的消息和建议吗?如果你对医学感兴趣的话,找一个导师并且留心一个医生的一天吧。好运!


  

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发表于 2009-11-29 22:00:36 | 显示全部楼层
翻译的很地道,学习啦

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发表于 2009-11-29 22:32:38 | 显示全部楼层
  非常有意义的翻译,感谢楼主。不过部分词汇个人认为虽然按字面翻译没错,但适当调整下贴近汉语习惯可能更好。比如“high pressure situations”翻译成"紧张局面"如何?

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 楼主| 发表于 2009-12-1 19:54:20 | 显示全部楼层
  非常有意义的翻译,感谢楼主。不过部分词汇个人认为虽然按字面翻译没错,但适当调整下贴近汉语习惯可能更好。比如“high pressure situations”翻译成"紧张局面"如何?
华西小卒 发表于 2009-11-29 22:32
好,好!
有时候很犹豫,在尊重原文与符合母语习惯之间难以取舍,找不到平衡。

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发表于 2010-11-6 13:47:10 | 显示全部楼层
翻译的很好,学习了

活动公告:论坛高级会员群开放,欢迎申请! ←点击查看详情

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发表于 2010-11-17 18:04:22 | 显示全部楼层
总体不错的!!!细节还应该改一下,比如on call应该翻成值班

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发表于 2011-3-15 15:52:41 | 显示全部楼层
选择麻醉,选择挑战,好,学习了

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发表于 2011-11-1 13:55:49 | 显示全部楼层
心态很重要。看了之后对我以后的工作很有帮助

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发表于 2011-12-9 15:04:17 | 显示全部楼层
新青年 新思想 新麻醉~ 很好的资源,翻译的不错。。个别翻译细节,我有不同看法。
“it goes without saying that you must excel academically, but also an anesthesiologist has to be incredibly detailed-oriented” 这里,“it goes without saying that ”应该有“不言而喻”的意思~,强调了理论和技能,心态以及人文关怀并重的意思。

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